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  摘要:考研英语作为一门考研公共课,虽然大家都学了英语十几年,却仍经常有总分过线挂在英语上的情况,因此英语复习不单单是单词、做题。阅读作为考研英语的大头,仅仅做考研真题或许没法满足你的阅读量,因此帮帮之后会不定时推出一篇英文美文,这些文章都与考研英语阅读同源,多读必有好处。

  The hearts of genetically modified pigs could be transplanted into humans to solve the shortage of organ donors, scientists believe.

  科学家们认为,转基因猪的心脏可以移植到人类体内,以解决器官供体短缺的问题。

  Researchers successfully grafted a pig heart into a baboon more than a year ago and it is still functioning, they report today.

  一年多前,研究人员成功地将猪心脏移植到狒狒体内,目前心脏仍在正常工作。

  Until now, organs transplanted into primates have only lasted for a maximum of six months before being rejected.

  直到现在,移植到灵长类动物身上的器官最多存活六个月就会被排斥。

  But scientists have tweaked the DNA of pigs so that their hearts are more compatible with primates and humans.

  但是科学家已经对猪的DNA进行了修改,使它们的心脏与灵长类动物和人类的心脏更匹配。

  “The developments may instil a new ray of hope for thousands of patients waiting for human donor organs,” said Muhammad Mohiuddin of the Cardiothoracic Surgery Research Programme at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in the US.

  美国国家心肺血液研究所心胸外科研究项目的医生穆罕默德·穆希丁表示:“这些进展可能会为成千上万等待人类捐赠器官的患者带来新的希望。”

  "If successful, this method could change the current transplant paradigm, eliminating the shortage of donor organs including hearts, livers, kidneys, intestine, as well as insulin producing cells for treatment of diabetes."

  “如果成功,这种方法可能会改变目前的移植模式,缓解包括心脏、肝脏、肾脏、肠以及用于治疗糖尿病的胰岛素生成细胞在内的供体器官的短缺现状。”

  At present people needing a heart transplant must wait until a suitable donor heart becomes available. Last year 145 operations were carried out at seven hospitals in Britain.

  目前,需要心脏移植的人必须等待合适的供体心脏出现。去年,英国7家医院进行了145例手术。

  However, only eight out of 10 people in the UK receive the transplant they needed because of a lack of suitable donors. Many adults and children are forced to wait more than a year for a new heart.

  然而,由于缺乏合适的捐赠者,英国只有80%的人接受了移植手术。为了等一个新心脏,许多成年人和儿童不得不等上一年多的时间。

  Those on waiting lists have to use an artificial heart but these are not perfect and have issues with power supplies, infection, and both clotting and haemolysis, the break down of red blood cells.

  那些在等候名单上的人不得不使用人工心脏,但人工心脏并不完美,而且存在供电、感染、凝血和溶血(红细胞分解)等问题。

  Transplantation using an animal organ, or xenotransplantation, has been proposed as an option to save human lives, but the challenge has been to stop hosts rejecting donor hearts.

  使用动物器官移植,或异种器官移植,已被提出作为拯救人类生命的一种选择,但挑战在于阻止宿主排斥供者的心脏。

  However researchers found that the pig hearts were alive and functioning well more than year after being grafted in place.

  然而,研究人员发现,这些猪的心脏在移植后仍然存活,并且功能良好。

  Pigs were chosen because their anatomy is compatible with humans and they have a rapid breeding cycle. Pig valves are already swapped for human heart valves.

  之所以选择猪,是因为它们的解剖结构与人类相适应,而且再生周期很快。猪的心脏瓣膜已经被替换成了人类的。

  Critics claim that because the life cycle of pigs is shorter than humans they will need to be replaced. They could also pass on diseases.

  批评人士称,由于猪的生命周期比人类短,这些心脏将需要被替换。同时它们也会传播疾病。

  But through genetic changes, the scientists have added several human genes to the pig genome as well as removing genes which trigger a dangerous immune response in humans.

  但是通过基因改造,科学家们在猪的基因组中加入了一些人类基因,同时也移除了那些能引发人类危险免疫反应的基因。

  The experiments involved using these genetically engineered pig hearts, transplanted in the abdomen of baboons alongside their actual hearts.

  实验中使用的是这些经过基因改造的猪心脏,它们被移植到狒狒的腹腔,与它们自身的心脏放在一起。

  The study was presented at the 94th American Association for Thoracic Surgery annual meeting in Toronto.

  这项研究成果在多伦多举行的第94届美国胸外科协会年会上发表。

  (全文共420个词,每日电讯报)

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